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Los Angeles Investigation & Polygraph Services - LA County, San Bernardino County, Orange County and California
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Orange County Office:
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Garden Grove, California 92845
 
Main Office:
PK Commercial Center
Glendora, California 91741
 
BLOGS and INFORMATION
 
1.   Polygraph tests what to expect. Wednesday, September 16, 2009
 
2.   Polygraph History prior to the Polygraph Protection Act. Employee Polygraph
         Protection ACT
 
                     Polygraph tests what to expect. Wednesday, September 16, 2009
 
In this article I will try to explain to you in a basic manner so that you understand what will transpire during your scheduled polygraph test.
 
Note (1): This article is not intended as a guide to assist anyone in trying to beat the examination. Many articles have been written on that subject. As a polygraph examiner for over 25 years I know the polygraph procedure works and anyone attempting any overt action in order to beat the process will be discovered.
 
The article is meant as a tool to have any subject(s) understand that in the hands of a professional and competent polygraph examiner the process will be completed in a timely and decisive conclusion.
 
Most clients after the examination walk away with a feeling of contentment and better understanding of the scientific system of the lie detector.
 
Nervous Anxiety:
 
Being nervous about what you are going to undertake is normal. Whether you are undertaking this scientific process of your own accord, or you have being requested to take a test by someone else or your employer has issues that can be investigated under the Employee Polygraph Protection Act. The process is basically structured the same.
 
1st and foremost no one can force you to take a polygraph procedure. Many times we are placed in a predicament that you find it necessary to involve ourselves in matters that need clarification. 
 
Most of the time after the extensive PRE-TEST INTERVIEW, Most subjects with an initial reluctance in taking a test do so voluntarily after a properly structured pre test interview. The pre test interview is meant to allay the subject's fears and anxieties felt when the subject volunteers to be involved in something that is out of the ordinary in their life.
 
Medical History or Medication:
 

If you are taking medication, DO NOT STOPS TAKING ANY PRESCRIBED MEDICATION. A misnomer in polygraph testing for the general public is that medication or illegal drugs affect the testing procedure.

 
Counter Measures:
 
The interview, polygraph computer algorithms and sensors on the instrument detect physical attempts at distortion of the polygraph test. Examiners continue their on going education throughout their career. One of the most important aspects in training is "Your" possible attempt at physical or psychological distortion in order to beat the test or help the test.
 
Types of counter measures
 
Ø    Physical
Ø    Emotional
Ø    Illegal Drug usage
Ø    Computer research
 
The only way that the polygraph procedure can be beat is:
 
"DO NOT TAKE THE TEST IN THE 1st PLACE".
 
Accuracy of the polygraph Procedure:
 
The accuracy of the polygraph procedure is between 95 % to 98 % accuracy. That accuracy rate is based on either the Analog Instrument of polygraph testing or the Computer Polygraph System.
 

Analog Polygraph Instrument Computer Polygraph Instrument

 
Note: (2) Do not let anyone, even a polygraph professional tell you that one system is better than the other. Not all polygraph examiners use the computer system in polygraph testing. At our agency we utilize both systems in polygraph testing.
 
Note: (3) As a matter of fact if an examiner is not using the computer polygraph system you can be assured that examiner has a lengthy background in polygraph testing. I know of no schools that are instructing its current students on the use of the polygraph technique in the analog systems.
 
Polygraph Components
 
Every examiner explains how the polygraph components function. Per APA (American Polygraph Association) standards, the only polygraph instrument that can be used to qualify as an instrument for lie detection is an instrument that records: Blood Pressure, Sweat Gland Activity and (2) Breathing components. The breathing consists of 2 sensors (Components) that record breathing in the abdominal area and the thoracic area of the subject's body)
 
The important part in explaining the component attachments is that your body does not need assistance in moving your lungs in or out of your chest. Your heart does not need help in pumping your blood throughout your body. Your entire body reacts automatically to climate change, room temperature or danger by immediate changes in numerous systems of the body.  
 
There are other components that are available for the computer components: activity sensor, skin conductance sensor, skins potential sensor, plethysmograph sensor, cardiovascular sensor, video recording and or audio recording. All of these components may not be used in every case in a testing procedure.
 
Basic body Reactions
 
(In laymen's terms, not to be construed as a lesson in biology or physiology).
 
Your body reacts to stress.
 
Untruthful person: When a body reacts to fear of detection of deception several physiological reactions occur simultaneously. As I stated before you do not need to help your heart pump blood throughout your body. Your body is in a state of "fight or flight". There is nothing that a person can do to avoid the increase or decrease in blood pressure, slowing or hyperventilation in breathing and since there are so many changes occurring in the body the sweat needs to cool the body down to maintain a normal body temperature. All if these reactions occur in order that the body protects itself. In a polygraph test the "fight or flight" syndrome is a misnomer, the subject cannot run away "flight" or the subject cannot physically confront the examiner "fight". If this in fact occurs you have a guilty subject.
 
Truthful person: If the examiner has conducted an appropriate interview explaining all of the process as is required, he has elevated all baggage of the nervous anxiety and tension the subject initially felt.
 
Note: (4) All of the information in this part of the article is reprinted from material in past and present lectures in physiological reactions.
 
James Allen Matte, The Art and Science of the Polygraph Technique, 1980
 
"Fear has a tendency to prepare the body for flight or fight. The adrenal glands begin releasing adrenalin into the blood stream stimulating the heart into greater activity, thereby increasing circulation. The circulatory system begins to redistribute blood supply, taking it away from the stomach and the intestines where it is not needed at the moment, sending it to the large muscle groups such as the arms and legs where it is needed more. The liver begins pumping glycogen into the bloodstream providing a quick source of extra energy. Breathing rate increases, and the spleen begins dispatching large numbers of additional red corpuscles into the bloodstream, thus enabling the lungs to exchange more oxygen from the air. In the meantime the pupils of the eyes dilate a little admitting more light. The hair bristles. Blood clotting hormones appear in the blood providing some protection against bleeding to death in the event of a wound.  The body is in the state of full emergency.
 
"THE LIE IS DETECTED" or "The Truthful subject is Cleared"
 
Fact: A much higher number of individuals who take a polygraph "pass" than "fail" the test.
 
Ernest A Pineda: Retired LAPD, over 25 years in the polygraph Profession
 
Ernest A Pineda
 
2.      Polygraph History prior to the Polygraph Protection Act. Employee Polygraph 
         Protection ACT:
 
Many employers have a tremendous tool for employee honesty. With the advent of the Employee Polygraph Protection Act an employer and polygraph examiner have been given specific guidelines to follow when employees are suspected in employer or work related issues.
 
Prior to 1987  (The ACT) employers did not need a specific incident to have occurred to "require or ask" an employee to take a polygraph test. Prior to 1987 there were examinations that were called periodic examinations. The definition of a periodic test was: employees suspected or in jobs with high value merchandise (jewlery, pharmaceuticals etc.) were asked to take examinations every 6-9 months. If there was a specific loss prior to the time span examinations were again conducted on employees. The examinations (periodic exam) was a perfect tool. Again if examiners were unscrupulous they could insist or suggest that the examinations be conducted as the employer suggested. Most examiners felt very uncomfortable conducting examinations every 6 months, unless there was a specific issue incident being investigated.
 
With the advent of the employer Polygraph Protection Act, there are specific responsibilities required from the employer.
 
The employer business has to have suffered a specific economic loss.
 
The employee has to be a reasonable suspect.
 
The employer needs to give the employee(s) a 48 hour written notification of the request to volunteer for a polygraph examination.
 
The reason for the notification is that the employee has 48 hours to contact an employee representative or an attorney for advice.
 
What the Employee Polygraph Protection Act did for the employee, employer and polygraph examiner
 
The employee can not arbitrarily be chosen at a whim to take a polygraph test. There is no more excuse for an employer to say that they did not want to discriminate against 1 employee. With the new federal law only a person that had access and could be assumed to be a reasonable suspect can be chosen or asked to take the examination.
 
The employer is now required to follow the federal law. In order to follow through with a polygraph test the employer needs to at the very least conduct a preliminary inquiry into the actual loss and notify the employee in writing of his suspicion that that employee could have reasonably been involved in the loss.
 

The polygraph examiner has to abide with the EPPA federal law. The examiner can only conduct up to 5 examinations per day that are no less than 1.5 hours each. Because of the employee Polygraph Protection Act many examiners quit the profession. The day of many cheap polygraph examinations per day are now gone.

 

When I retired from the police dept., I worked as a security manager for an agency in California. The owner of the security agency was a polygraph examiner. On a daily basis I would see a waiting room full of applicants awaiting a pre-employment examination. Between 6-10 applicants were administered a polygraph test within 5-6 hours.

 

Once I attended the polygraph school I realized that a good structured polygraph test could last no less than 1.5 hours. Was there something wrong there?

 
The information in this article is in brief. for further information go to the following link
 
 
Ernest A Pineda
 
Documents and Information
 

This form is an "EXAMPLE" for the employer that is in need of an investigation of the employees that are reasonable suspects in work related economic losses. The employer is required to notify all reasonable employees involved in work related incidents 48 hours in advance of a polygraph test of the request of employees to submit voluntarily for a polygraph test. This notification is required in writing. This form is very easy to follow the step by step information for the notification. As always each employer or person utilizing these type of services should check with legal counsel and or human resources staff for advice. For your convenience the 2nd form is a Spanish form for your convenience. all information on the English form is translated into Spanish for your convenience.

 
 
 
 
 
 
A Pineda Private Investigation & Polygraph Service
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345 W Foothill Blvd
Glendora , CA , 91741 USA
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